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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高(gao)速加(jia)工中(zhong)心是(shi)一种可(ke)以对(dui)加(jia)工工件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)高(gao)速加(jia)工的(de)(de)(de)(de)一种工具能(neng)够(gou)(gou)如此(ci)快(kuai)速的(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)工件的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工除了因为(wei)高(gao)速加(jia)工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工精密度(du)(du)和成熟的(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术之外更多的(de)(de)(de)(de)还是(shi)得利与(yu)其优秀(xiu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)系统(tong)(tong),在当前的(de)(de)(de)(de)机床加(jia)工行(xing)(xing)业(ye)中(zhong)为(wei)视(shi)线高(gao)速稳定的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)精度(du)(du)加(jia)工运行(xing)(xing)快(kuai)速且功能(neng)强大的(de)(de)(de)(de)计算机数控(kong)系统(tong)(tong)是(shi)必不可(ke)少,需要(yao)注(zhu)意的(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)高(gao)速加(jia)工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)系统(tong)(tong)必须能(neng)够(gou)(gou)足够(gou)(gou)快(kuai)地处理数控(kong)程(cheng)序代码段(duan)以保(bao)持程(cheng)序中(zhong)规定的(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)(jin)给速度(du)(du)。

 

高速(su)加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心在(zai)实际运行中(zhong)(zhong)是计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)统(tong)用(yong)(yong)于(yu)测量一次工(gong)作台的(de)(de)实际位置并发出一次进给命令(ling)所(suo)(suo)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)时(shi)间(jian)(jian),对于(yu)伺服(fu)周期和(he)代码段(duan)处理(li)(li)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)是计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)两个(ge)重(zhong)要参数及其概念。计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)统(tong)处理(li)(li)并完成(cheng)一条加工(gong)指令(ling)代码段(duan)规定的(de)(de)位移所(suo)(suo)花费的(de)(de)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)。 计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)数控系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)这两个(ge)参数对于(yu)高速(su)加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心来说(shuo)非常重(zhong)要,因(yin)为他们将决定机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)加工(gong)速(su)度和(he)加工(gong)精(jing)度。在(zai)这里,精(jing)度意(yi)味着在(zai)采用(yong)(yong)线(xian)性插(cha)补时(shi),用(yong)(yong)直线(xian)段(duan)来逼近零件轮廊所(suo)(suo)允许的(de)(de)最大误差。

 

我(wo)们可以(yi)(yi)看到(dao)在高速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统必(bi)须(xu)保(bao)(bao)证形成精确的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji),另外,在用直(zhi)线(xian)段(duan)来(lai)逼近零(ling)件轮廊时(shi)(shi)(shi),为(wei)了保(bao)(bao)证精度,直(zhi)线(xian)段(duan)势(shi)必(bi)很短,从而使(shi)得(de)零(ling)件程(cheng)序(xu)变得(de)很长。基于此,计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统需要一(yi)个(ge)(ge)32位的(de)微处(chu)理(li)器,有时(shi)(shi)(shi)甚至需要多(duo)个(ge)(ge)微处(chu)理(li)器,以(yi)(yi)完成高速(su)插补、高速(su)段(duan)处(chu)理(li)和良好的(de)待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为(wei)了能(neng)预先知(zhi)道刀具(ju)(ju)路径以(yi)(yi)避(bi)免在拐(guai)角 处(chu)出现事故,计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统最好是具(ju)(ju)有较多(duo)段(duan)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong) NC代码轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)能(neng)力(li),这与(yu)司(si)机(ji)必(bi)须(xu)有良好的(de)视(shi)野(ye) 范(fan)围(wei)才能(neng)高速(su)驾驶一(yi)辆汽(qi)车有些类似(si)。 目前所(suo)有较高水(shui)平的(de)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统都具(ju)(ju)有待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)能(neng)力(li)。所(suo)谓待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong),就是计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统在控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)同(tong)时(shi)(shi)(shi)扫描(miao)待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)代码,看刀具(ju)(ju)路径是否(fou)有方向(xiang)上的(de)突(tu)然(ran)改变,如果(guo)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统发(fa)现前面必(bi)须(xu)改变进(jin)给方向(xiang)时(shi)(shi)(shi),自动执行加(jia)减(jian)速(su)程(cheng)序(xu),以(yi)(yi)避(bi)免高速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心偏离程(cheng)序(xu)中规定的(de)切削加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)路径。


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